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Criticism has been leveled at the curative rather than health promotion/disease prevention focus of the U.S. healthcare system Answer

Criticism has been leveled at the curative rather than health promotion/disease prevention focus of the U.S. healthcare system. Should the focus change? Why or why not? Do you see evidence of a shift occurring? If so, what do you think is contributing to that change?

The focus is changing through changes in the Medicare benefits, curative was the primary focus of healthcare and now it is preventative. It should be prevention because it saves millions of dollars in healthcare benefits to prevent instead of cure. Our government is getting smarter by covering more prevention services than waiting for someone to get sick before we care for them. However, we are not there yet but moving into that direction. The wellness approach is a great way to encourage and prevent illness. Changing your lifestyle to a more healthy way of life a little at a time helps a lot. It is all about prevention instead of curative because curative costs and prevention saves healthcare dollars.

The preventive approach is being utilized at the Queens Long Island Medical Group (QLIMG) at all the various locations listed below. The healthcare professionals do their very best to direct their patients in the right path to go to prevent further serious illnesses.

Astoria Medical Office

31-75 23rd Street

Astoria, NY 11106

(718) 956-2200

Babylon Medical Office

300 Bayshore Rd.

North Babylon, NY 11703

(631) 586-2700

It makes sense to move to a preventive style, it saves money and saves lives. My employer is currently moving in that direction and it’s saving me money ever month for both me and my wife, by simply not smoking and getting a check up once per year. Americans need to be educated on better health.

In general, I believe health care organizations are putting more emphasis on preventive medicine. In a different thread, I’ve discussed my organization verifies that all patients admitted to the hospital and those who come in for clinic visits are immunized. If they are not up to date on immunizations, we ensure that before they leave they receive their vaccines unless parents oppose to vaccinating their children. We also spend a great deal of time teaching our patients and their families about their disease process and what their plan of care entails in order to avoid future hospitalizations (asthma teaching, diabetes management, etc). I wonder if there is a difference in the payer ratio between preventive medicine and curative medicine. I thought I heard that Medicaid pays more for preventive medicine. Also, just today, I received a letter from my primary physician’s office stating that it’s been a year since they’ve seen me and I should schedule an appointment for a routine check-up. I’m one of those people that usually sees their physician only when something is wrong. It could be partly due to having a high deductible plan and I don’t want to pay for it and it could be due to the fact that nurses usually don’t make the best patients. Either way, I think individuals (including myself) need to prioritize and realize the importance of preventive medicine. My friend was diagnosed with breast cancer at the age of 26; the lump was found on her yearly physical by her primary care physician. She told me that she usually goes in for a yearly physical because it’s one of the few visits that is 100% covered by her insurance.

As an educator, I am a firm believer of preventive medicine. I get to promote that in my Nutrition classes with actual evidence that many of our public health issues can be addressed before they reach critical levels. For example, back in 2010, we spent $147 billion on patient care that could have been prevented because it was all related to obesity. Conditions like heart disease, diabetes, circulatory problems, kidney disorders and many others are the end results of a consumer based culture that promotes harmful habits such as eating fast foods, drinking beer and convenience I like to call a drive through mentality. Why is it that our politicians are still fighting over who is going to pay for patients treatments instead of focusing how to prevent disease in a first place? It is simple. There is no money in prevention like there is for treatment.

What are the cultural factors which impact the way in which we approach our healthcare system?     Why do we not focus on prevention more on our system?

If we would focus more on Prevention it could eliminate a lot of surgeries and major illness. this that is possibly could lower some medical cost. I think most people do not focus on prevention because they wait until something goes wrong to get help. Many people can not afford healthcare insurance. So, they are faced with putting food on the table or going for an annual exam. Of course putting food on the table is a more important priority. I believe that in many instances individuals have indicators that alert them that something is not right with their bodies. It’s not until they can’t function or is forced to seek medical attention before they will go to the doctor. My mother is one of these individuals. She just will not go to the doctors. I try to encourage her to go but she just won’t do it.

How does the media impact our attitude toward prevention and wellness both in a positive way and a negative way?

Positively I think the media put the concern in our minds by making us aware of different illnesses. Recently I saw a commercial were a variety of people were laughing at one moment then crying seconds later. I initially thought this a comical commercial, but at the end of the commercial this condition was given a medical name. The commercial caught my attention because it was different, but it actually ended up being very informational. On a negative note things in the media may make individuals worry more. They may decide not to seek medical assistance out of fear of the unknown, or vice versa where they may go to the doctors unnecessarily for everything.

The media has positive affect when it properly educates and creates a sense of urgency for change. I think unfortunately that “fads” are created and the longevity for change fall to the wayside. The media focuses on diets and the new supplement of the month and Dr. OZ and misses that fact that our children are going to have a shorter sicker life than we are. We need to properly educate America and then maybe provide an insurance incentive for those who don’t drink or smoke and those who eat right and exercise regularly. We are less of a burden on the system and we should pay less because we cost less. I want to say that just because you have a reoccurring illness or a mental health diagnosis I don’t think you should have to go broke paying but paying a little more over a long period of time is better than not having insurance at all. We need big changes in attitudes and lifestyles in America and I can’t wait to

Medication commercial should be outlawed like cigarettes or booze; oh that right we have allowed those back in the media mostly due to ridiculously large donations by the company who produce them. Anyways, drug companies develop a new drug and they want to get it into the market as fast as possible so they advertise. These advertisement create a buzz about the product, they consumer then asks their doctor about it, the doctor prescribes it. Right? Well, almost. The manufacturer develops a drug and a representative goes to the doctors most likely to prescribe they offer presents, samples and cash bonuses and leave the product in the doctors’ office. What do you think a doctor is going to prescribe mediation in generic form or the new shiny box in the closet that makes him a little more money or a trip? Sometimes the pharmaceutical companies offer large gifts to the doctors and their staff so that they will advertise and advocate their medications. I have a friend that works for a pain management company and she has yet to pay for her own lunch, and she has been there over a year. There are some many pharmaceutical representatives in and out of their office offering them a variety of gifts just so the doctors will prescribe their meds.

According to our text book, “Individual factors include inherited (i.e., genetic) characteristics and individual behaviors that reflect a person’s beliefs, attitudes, and values. Another individual factor, health literacy, has only recently begun to be examined. Some databases (see the statistical section on the World Health Organization’s website) note that the United States has a 100 percent literacy rate, which is seriously overstated. A person’s ability to read and understand prescription dosages and times and conditions of usage will affect the outcome of treatment. A language barrier may affect a person’s ability to comprehend the proposed treatment plan.”

http://devry.vitalsource.com/#/books/978-1-56793-374-1/content/element/2010?locs[]=11-7&q=factors

What are the cultural factors which impact the way in which we approach our healthcare system?

 

Cultures plays a major role when it comes to healthcare. By health professionals understanding their patients cultures will makes them better understand them. Doctors should take some time to find out their religion, diet, communication/interaction. For example, Muslims fast during certain times of the year. If a Muslim is a diabetic then the doctor would have to explain that it is best not to fast in order to avoid hypogloycemia. Another example, would be Muslims are not comfortable with shaking hands with the opposite sex.

Why do we not focus on prevention more on our system?

I believe that we do not focus on prevention in our healthcare system, because it takes a lot of time. Most people do not worry about going to their annual check-up because they are not sick, they keep postponing it and it is the same with the regularly scheduled preventative exams such as mammograms and colonoscopies. People have to take time out of their busy scheduled to tend to their own maintenance. We as American workers focus too much on others and not ourselves.   If nothing is wrong, it is hard to spend the extra time and money to go to a checkup where they tell you everything is fine. The co-pays are too high and our employers are not very understanding when it comes to yearly physicals and other preventative procedures. The doctor’s offices and procedure places of business are just as bad. They do not offer appointments that would work around the regular Monday through Friday 8 – 5 pm schedule that most Americans work with. Perhaps if we were given a couple of days a year that was paid by our employers to get this all done, then maybe we would have better preventative care. You would have to show proof that you went to the doctor or had your procedure, which isn’t hard to do and then when submitted to work, you get paid. The government could offer some type of incentatives to those employers that have 90% or above compliance with preventative healthcare measures. Another idea would be a scheduled by the employer appointment for preventative care. They would schedule it, pay you for the day, and of course give you the day of, so that you would be able to get your preventative care done. Some companies already have a form of this where they receive a company physical. When I first was hired at St Vincent, I received a physical that was scheduled by them, but I have not gotten another from them. If they did this every year or every 2 years, this would be a great start towards preventative care compliance.

Many families are lacking the knowledge of proper nutrition, many doctors as well. The drive thru is killing us, a family can be feed from the dollar menu, this is a cheaper option for some people. Yes it should change because the greatest advances in America’s health have come from preventive and public health measures, and based on the history and evidence of disease prevention the opportunity remains vast for further gains through disease prevention and health promotion. Promotion/disease prevention also promotes a since of shared responsibility for the health of our nation and its communities and it gets all involved in the processes as well.

 

Human behavior plays a central role in the maintenance of health, and the prevention of disease. With an eye to lowering the substantial morbidity and mortality associated with health-related behavior, health professionals have turned to models of behavior change to guide the development of strategies that foster self-protective action, reduce behaviors that increase health risk, and facilitate effective adaptation to and coping with illness. Several decades of concerted effort to promote health and decrease risk through individual behavior change have produced successes, failures, and lessons learned.

Human behavior plays a central role in the maintenance of health and the prevention of disease. Growing evidence suggests that effective programs to change individual health behavior require a multifaceted approach to helping people adopt, change, and maintain behavior. For example, strategies for establishing healthy eating habits in children and adolescents might be quite ineffective for changing maladaptive eating behaviors—that is, when they are used to substitute one pattern for another—in the same population (e.g., Jeffery et al., 2000). Similarly, maintaining a particular behavior over time might require different strategies than will establishing that behavior in the first place (e.g., Ockene et al., 2000). Models of behavior change have been developed to guide strategies to promote healthy behaviors and facilitate effective adaptation to and coping with illness.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK43749/

One of the strategies that is being used by employers and health insurance companies is to provide incentives to individuals to engage in healthy behaviors.   Do you support this approach?

Yes, I definitely support these incentives provided as employees who have desk jobs, do not get much exercise in general. Healthy behaviors such as getting up and taking a break every 2 hours, taking a walk, ensuring proper usage of back support and ergonomics for typing would decrease carpel tunnel syndromes, back pains and other injuries which would benefit the company by not paying for work compensation. Also having a gym in the company would be a great benefit for the employees as well.

Is there some financial incentives that we can provide to employees that may be effective?

Some companies have offered annual raises, or even an annual bonus to the best performers of healthy behavior. These kinds of financial incentives do usually make employees think about the change in a whole new light. All the guidelines of the healthy behavior program should be given to everyone that is willing to participate. Make sure that these and other incentive’s are monitored closely so the employee does not feel slighted by a missed bonus or raise.

My company currently offers wellness bonuses. These bonuses are our unused sick time. At the end of the fiscal year we can either cash them out for the bonus, or bank them for later use. Wellness programs can also penalize employees for not participating or having an categorized unhealthy life style. The link below is to an article that describes how large companies’ like Wal-Mart and Pepsi, charge there employees higher premiums for not participating in the wellness program. The gave of an example of a smoker vs non-smoker. The smoker paid $2000 more in premiums than the non-smoker. The article discussed how this practice and penalties will increase with the Affordable Care Act.

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/02/22/health-insurance-should-employee-lifestyles-determine-cost_n_2741589.html

“As Company Wellness Programs Grow, Effectiveness of Finical Incentives Debated”

 

 

What do you think of the types of employer programs that are idenfied in this post? Do you think they are effective? Should employees be required to participate?   What are the benefits?

I think its good but maybe the cost could be reduced. Its good because the purpose of the program is to increase health prevention and health awareness. The Health Reform Act wants more health prevention to make people aware of their health choices and empowers them to become healthier by implementing programs to address’s questions that could prevent illnesses as well as injuries thus reducing the cost of health care.

Health promotion, also known as primordial prevention aims to help people increase control over and improve their health. Although it may have an effect on specific diseases, it has a more general aim: to enhance health in order to develop the person’s resistance to the adverse influences of physical and social environments. Illness prevention involves actions to eliminate or minimize conditions known to cause or contribute to different diseases.

 

http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/44223_

http://phprimer.afmc.ca/Part3-PracticeImprovingHealth/Chapter8IllnessPreventionAndHealthPromotion/Healthpromotion

Curative Approach is used by treating the illness (cure), where preventative approach is used to prevent the illness such as a healthy lifestyle change or going for medical tests that your healthcare suggest or require a head of time. With that said, in my household we are take a preventative approach we all take vitamins and try to eat healthy on a daily basis, in which this helps with the costs of doctor visits during the year. I have noticed that my children have a healthy check up visit, which requires me to take them once a year for a physical or their routine shots. It has worked for my family. I would like to think that the curative approach will more doctor visits, more money spent, and less of me going to work. This wouldn’t make me a happy camper by using this type of cuarative approach.

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You are running a small yard maintenance business for the summer Answer

  • You are running a small yard maintenance business for the summer. What do you expect to happen to the number of yards you can maintain in a day as you add workers if you don’t purchase more capital equipment (like mowers and leaf blowers)? Provide at least two (2) supporting facts to support your response.

 

  1. Using the real business cycle theory, explain two (2) effects of an adverse technological shock on the labor market and on the output market.
  2. Suppose you were interested in increasing technological progress in your country. Suggest two (2) ways to do this.

 

Answer

  1. You are running a small yard maintenance business for the summer. What do you expect to happen to the number of yards you can maintain in a day as you add workers if you don’t purchase more capital equipment (like mowers and leaf blowers)? Provide at least two (2) supporting facts to support your response.

I would expect that the number of yards that can be maintained in a day will go up, then down as you reach the limit of capital allocation (mowers, blowers, etc.). There are a number of variables in determining the number of yards that can be maintained, but the question asks us to look at only two. As long as there is equipment for employees, additional employees add to productivity. Once all equipment is assigned, additional employees are unnecessary (they just stand around – fact 1) and there is no efficiency to be gained (the equipment is fully utilized – fact 2).

  1. Using the real business cycle theory, explain two (2) effects of an adverse technological shock on the labor market and on the output market.

The real business cycle model claims that changes in technology, typically called technology shocks, cause most changes in real GDP, in both the short run and the long run. When productivity falls, the growth rate of real GDP turns negative as the technological shock is felt throughout the economy.

If the return on labor is less after a technology shock, people will work less.

People will substitute leisure time for productivity time. Or, unemployment will rise if labor rates can not be reduced (i.e. union contracts, etc.).

Output will also be affected by a negative technology shock. Reduced labor rates will cause reduced demand for goods. Reduced rates for goods will cause financial frictions, loan losses (which will restrict future credit supply in response)

 

  1. Suppose you were interested in increasing technological progress in your country. Suggest two (2) ways to do this.

Governments have long sought to subsidize technological growth, as a way of improving the standard of living of all its citizens. Subsidizing private sector invention, by protecting the effort through tax credits and patent protection, provides incentives for new products and services to be brought to market. Secondly, supporting innovation (new ways of doing something that increases productivity) allows for larger increases in technological progress. Government tax credits, patents, licenses to support the entrepreneurial effort (protecting the demand for the new process) are all techniques that can spur innovation.

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As far as PAC is concerned, what is a constraint? Why is it important to be able to identify a constraint in the first place Answer

Types of Constraints

As far as PAC is concerned, what is a constraint? Why is it important to be able to identify a constraint in the first place?

 

The idea of bottlenecking can also be referred to as a constraint. It is important to identify a constraint because a company want to improve utilization of resources during production, reduce delay or down timing and to minimize excess costs. A company’s main goal is to produce efficiently and effectively without any constraints so identifying issues, fixing and maintaining control are all important steps that are vital to smoothing production. The book states that continuous improvement is an integral part of the theory of constraints philosophy which translates to; improvement starts and is guided by theory and constraints follow.

Jacobs, Berry, Whybark and Vollmann. Manufacturing Planning and Control for Supply Chain Management, 6th Edition. McGraw-Hill Learning Solutions, 2011.

What are the specific steps to managing constraints as outlined in the textbook and lecture?

Specific steps to manage constraints as per the lecture are:

  1. Identify the constrained resource.
  2. Decide how to make the bottleneck as efficient as possible.
  3. Make the exploitation of the constraint the top priority and all other decisions secondary.
  4. If more capacity is still needed, add capacity via capital investment, outsourcing, process redesigns, and the like.
  5. Return to Step 1 and find the next constraint.

So which of the five steps do you think is the most challenging when dealing with constraints; and why?

When looking at the steps on how to manage constraints I think the most challenging step is determining if more capacity is needed and how to add it. The lecture states that you can add capacity through capital investment, outsourcing and process redesigns which means that there are many options to explore before determining what you will use to add capacity. This seems as if it can create another time constraint on top of the one already present because of the fact that you have to look at the production process as a whole to determine what you can do. Time is everything in production and if company’s are spending too much time on trying to figure out how to fix or change a process and add capacity they can create unwanted costs.

 

 

Tthis step in TOC is critical because it requires a concerted effort to identify the true need for capital investments, process redesign, etc.

I think that deciding on how to make the bottleneck as efficient as possible is the more challenging one. Trying to figure out what is causing the bottleneck to make it more efficient can be difficult and time consuming. Say it is a particular job that someone is doing slowly because they did not have the right training or resources to do their job. It could be that the person just isn’t motivated either. When you are dealing with people it is difficult to find the right ways to improve the bottleneck as a person could one day do a job in half the time because they just felt like it. Depending on what the problem is also can be a costly measure to fix the problem as well. Say it is machinery that needs to be upgraded in order to be more efficient or another machine needs to be added to make it more efficient in order to keep up with demand.

To manage bottlenecking the company must follow the steps listed below:

– Identify the constraint

– Decide how to make the bottleneck as efficient as possible

– Make the elimination or management of the bottleneck the top priority and all others come second

– Add capital, outsourcing and process redesigns as needed to eliminate the bottleneck

– Return to the first step and manage to next constraint

I would say the most difficult would be deciding how to make the bottleneck efficient. Though most of the time there will be numerous ways to make the improvement, figuring out the best way is tricky. The ideal way would be to make the improvement internally without needing to add capital, man power or any cost to the company.   Making the bottleneck efficient requires a significant commitment from an organization; i.e., not to revert back to the “work arounds” if the results are not timely.

According to the text constraints are any resource whose capacity is equal to or less than the required demand is referred to as a bottleneck. As a consequence the fundamental principle of TOC systems is that only those work centers (or other types of resources) that are bottlenecks are of critical concern in scheduling. This is because the bottleneck work centers limit the overall production output of a plant.

Constraints are explicitly identified, and they’re buffered with inventory. Also, the constraint’s importance is made clear to the entire factory. Jobs are closely examined to find any that can be alternatively routed, even if the result is “excess cost” for the work so routed. The goal is always to break a constraint, or bottleneck condition, and thereafter identify the next constraint. Continuous improvement is an integral part of the theory of constraints philosophy. Moreover, the path for the improvement is directed by the theory, always following the constraints.

 

 

Which of the five steps do you think is the most challenging when dealing with constraints?

I believe the most challenging one out of the five steps when dealing with constraints is “exploiting the constraint”, the reason is because the activities of the chosen constraining element are examined , with special attention given to dedicating that element to maximum efficiency focused entirely on single primary function, to ensure that efforts relating to the constraint are on task and not wasted on any nonessential activity.

The textbook and lecture recommend that the approach to dealing with constraints is to utilizing Theory of Contraints (TOC) which is to improve the throughout the contraint or bottlenect. It also stated that utilizing of TOC follows a continuous improvement philosophy. That is when one contraint is broken, then next bottlenect is identified and then progross of breaking the constraint is restarted. The outline of the process are 1) identify the contrainted resource 2) decide how to make the bottle as efficient and all other decisions secondary 4) if more capacity is still needed, add capacity vis capital investiment, outsourcing, process redesigns, and the like and 5) return to step 1 and find the next contraint.

what else does the textbook say about constraints? Also, what are the specific steps to managing constraints as outlined in the textbook and lecture?

The text book states that we should follow the following 5 steps:

  1. Identify the constrainted resource.
  2. Decide how to make the bottleneck as efficient as possible.
  3. Make the exploitation of the constraint the top priority and all other decisions secondary.
  4. If more capacity is still needed, add capacity via capital investment, outstanding, process redesigns, and the like.
  5. Return to step 1 and find the next constraint.

How would you define the concept of Buffer Management in TOC?

The concept of Buffer Management in TOC is to provide timely protection of a production system from any likely or expected disruption. For instance, it provide the means by which the schedule is only as good as the ability to manage it or “make it happen”. This is where the Buffer Management (BM) control comes in and is a very important aspect of the TOC application.

Buffers are set into place for unseen variations in production, they are a proactive way to keep production in sync. There are 3 zones that help accomplish the management of buffers which are red, yellow and green. Red zone contains the orders that are scheduled next to the constraint and should rarely have missing orders. Yellow zone includes orders that are further out from the constraint and may have some missing orders. And finally the Green zone which also includes orders that are further out from the constraint but, will regularly have missing orders. It is important to have someone working on resolving the buffering issues so that production can flow smoother and on schedule. The larger the buffer size the more money that is invested and the greater chance of performance being effected.

Jacobs, Berry, Whybark and Vollmann. Manufacturing Planning and Control for Supply Chain Management, 6th Edition. McGraw-Hill Learning Solutions, 2011.

Buffers are put in place for unforseen variations in production at the nonconstraint work centers. The key to a successful implementation of TOC is the proactive management of the buffers. In many plants the management of the buffers is the responsibility of buffer coordinator. One way of accomplishing this is to divide the buffers in thirds. The first third is the red zone. The red zone includes the orders that are scheduled next on the constraint. The middle third is the yellow zone, and the final third is the green zone, which includes the orders that are the furthest out in the drum schedule. The red zone should rarely have missing orders. Orders that are missing from the red zone represent an immediate danger to the drum schedule. If an order is missing from the red zone, the buffer coordinator should be working nonstop on getting this order to the machine. If the red zone is always full, consideration should be given to reducing the buffer size. The larger the buffer size, the more money invested in WIP inventory. Therefore, buffers should be only large enough to ensure delivery performance to the drums. The yellow zone will occasionally have missing orders. The buffer coordinator should be actively working to get these orders to the buffer as quickly as possible. Likewise, the green zone will regularly have orders missing. The buffer coordinator should know where these orders are, and verify that they should arrive at the buffer shortly.

Reference:

Textbook

Some forms of buffer management can be use in term of physical stock and in term of time. Safety time can be preferable to safety stock for many businesses or companies with high demand and process variability. Hence, using buffers in time gives companies certain planning advantages. There are factors that should be taken into account during the determination of buffer. For instance, distribution of cycle times, learning effects, working hours, and outlier determination methods have substantial impacts on buffer calculations. I think one of the best place to have buffer management in place is before a bottleneck station.

Our textbook offered great insight for unforseen variations in a production at non constraint work center and also provide great technique that can be implement on a way of accomplishing flow of process in production environment.

 

in relation to our discussion on buffer management…, why would a company inflate the safety stock and/or safety lead time?

According to the text, while the entire buffer time is scheduled for every order, it is not expected that every order will arrive at the drum on time. Therefore, the key to a successful implementation of TOC is the proactive management of the buffers. In many plants the management of the buffers is the responsibility of a shop-floor scheduling person designated as the buffer coordinator.The buffer coordinator should know where orders are, and verify that they should arrive at the buffer shortly.

 

The Concept of Buffer Management in TOC, plays is an integral part of TOC execution. Whether the buffer being managed is the constraint buffer, the shipping buffer, or the assembly buffer, the approach is the same. Under Toc buffer management forms the basic for shop floor control.

Buffer management provides the means by which the schedule is managed on the shop floor. Buffer management is a process in which all expediting in a shop is motivated by what is scheduled to be in the buffers (constraint, shipping, and assembly buffers). Buffers can be maintained at the constraint, convergent points, divergent points, and shipping points. By expediting this material into the buffers, the system helps to avoid idleness at the constraint and missed customer due dates. Also, the causes of items missing from the buffer are identified, and the frequency of occurrences is used to prioritize improvement activities.

Can you provide an everyday example of buffers in action?

the book talks about safety stock and safety lead, both provide a cushion against variations in job flow. “Reducing the effect of uncertainty is also discussed which includes realistic schedules that meet material and capacity limitations, involving the appropriate level of work-in-process inventory, the capacity utilization attainable, degree of schedule protection, and batch size controls can all be applied to the TOC procedure. ”

Jacobs,R;2011(pg.286)

I think safety stock is a good idea for most companies,especially if you use a lot of small parts(washers,screws,etc.) when manufacturing. Being able to schedule lead time during your manufacturing schedule would help if you have a supplier that constantly delivers materials late.

Buffer management is controlling the bottleneck by way of buffering the next production process. Basically the idea is to build up enough product in order to compensate for the slowing in one production area. For example, if area A produces slower than area B, are B would not begin production until there is enough of A completed to not distrupt production flow of B once it has started.

 

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Thomas Friedman has been a strong supporter of globalization and emphasizes the benefits of globalization’s technologies and outcomes. Do you agree with his view?

Many experts assert that globalization has essentially made us less independent and more closely connected to other people than ever before. This enhanced connectivity has important implications for individuals, small businesses, corporations, and governments. Thomas Friedman has been a strong supporter of globalization and emphasizes the benefits of globalization’s technologies and outcomes. Do you agree with his view? Why or why not? What are some of the challenges experienced by governments that are associated with globalization? What are some of the challenges experienced by individuals?

Globalization is a complex technology that is dominated by the principle of reducing trade barriers between countries and stabilizing currency exchange and developing consistent business laws between countries. The US government was the primary supporter of this concept. What do the results show? American’s like to think of themselves as free and independent individualities, free to make our own decisions. Yet how can that be when a war in one part of the world can double the price of gasoline or when wealthy foreign countries stop buying our bonds, jobs are outsourced or ….  

I tend to be on the fence on this subject where there are intended outcomes and unexpected outcomes where initially globalization I believe is a good thing and has created the economy that we have seen, not so much as of late and those are the consequences of globalization war, outsourcing, and too much control by some entities. But in some cases or many cases it can be a burden on say the common people when you talk about oil or prices for just about anything there can be some backlash or at least that is what we are told say the oil again, the price can double go up at any little excuse that they can think of while making record profits. Next communication say wireless mobile phones, internet is so expensive here in this country but say in Asia can be at least twice as less than we pay here, why is that??? Again I agree and I just have to express some thoughts that I have, but globalization allows those countries in Asia to develop and create better lives for those that have been behind in quality of life that we have had for a while.

Globalization is the real deal when it comes to the process of the accelerating the exchange of ideas and commodities over a long distances, it’s very common to talk about the phenomenon in high context speaking generalized terms. But you have to think about the impacts of globalization which I think from my back ground must be at a local level.

The global economic system has helped to create a world system that is no longer independent but interdependent. Freedom is a theoretical illusion at best. None of us are fee individually nor are we free as independent nations. Technology has helped our world emerge into a global community where events in one part of the world can quickly trigger reactions in another. Technology is made us one community where we all are sowers and reapers of each others decisions.

I think the United States is definitly a part of a Global Economy. During the recession of 2009 all of the world’s economies took major hits. This was because we are all interconnected through our exports and imports. As a country we could not survive without the imports from other countries. There are large amounts of products that we as Americans no longer manufacture. During the recession there were many Americans who felt we should severe our imports from other Countries. This would cause the price of goods to skyrocket because we cannot these goods as cheaply.

Actually there is a debate going on about the benefits of manufacturing in America, the main advantages of manufacturing in America are the reduction in transportation costs (as petrol costs increase, so does the transportation costs, reducing overall profits), reducing supply chain disruptions, increased control over intellectual property, currency fluctuations (the depreciation of the dollar and rise of China’s currency), and probably more. It is also claimed that American labor while more expensive, is more efficient and productive and therefore offsets the cost. All in all it appears as though manufacturing, at least in some industries, might be making a comeback in America.

I am not an expert but here is where I got most of the information from:

http://www.forbes.com/sites/forbesleadershipforum/2012/09/21/manufacturing-may-be-coming-back-to-the-u-s-long-term/

There would be many schools of thought on this topic, especially when it comes to global economics. By comparison/ranking the European Union ($17 trillion) leads the U.S. ($14 trillion) followed by China ($7 trillion) in GDP (CIA Factbook, 2013).

I think what makes each country/region more successful/less successful than the other depends on how their political system (and political leaders) drives the economy. Various blends of capitalism (Euro and U.S.) is more prevalent and accepted versus hybrid socialism-communism (China) approaches in the global market. Obviously, there is MUCH to learn from Euro politics and economy.

Then you have a myriad of ethical, moral and legal standards behind ALL of it….I believe the bottomline in good v.s. bad globalization is the integrity of political systems and bureaucracy protocols: at the end of the day blame the poor economy on crooked and inept political leaders, period.   Bad politics = bad economy.

Certainly Americans are free and independent in the pursuit of happiness (whatever that is these days). I’m not so sure I would call it a “dream” anymore. As my “man” George Carlin best coined the term of the American Dream….”you have to be asleep to believe it”. That appropriate quote might not be on the Dept of Labor’s website, but the unemployment rate in the U.S. definitely reflects it.

http://www.bls.gov/

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html

Here is where some of our earlier discussions fit in – particularly those involving instant communication and visual technologies. It’s one thing to feel bad about those little villages, melting ice caps, people with lost retirement savings, etc. when they’re a two paragraph article in the Sunday paper. It’s another thing altogether to see vivid pictures in real time on a 24/7 basis. It’s harder to feel disconnected from the rest of the world.

Capitalist efficiency also seems to be taking a pretty heavy toll on the people who’ve made it work for the past 60 or so years – the middle class worker. I appreciated Bhagwati’s “In Defense of Globalization,” but I think he’d have a harder time refuting anti-corporation and anti-capitalist attitudes if he’d written his essay after the Great Recession rather than he did writing it in 2004.   I’m sure it could be done, but it would be much more difficult. Some pretty ugly truths were exposed.

Competition in the global market is unforgiving, and it is a merciless entity. I don’t think the little villages around the world suffer from globalization alone—they definitely get a collateral effect from it. Globalization can be to blame for civil wars, disease, genocide and famine—but not all the time. And “policies” do preserve, especially those with a payback theme: “Global War on Terrorism” and “War on Drugs”—getting rid of the evil people to save the innocent and protect the economy.

Being romantic to the global market misfortunes of a little village in Africa or the Middle East is empathetic. Empathy makes us moral, naturally. Where I am concerned beyond that is when I look at the manufacturer’s tag of my clothing or household item and “truly” question where it came from in regards to forced labor. Most of our products in the U.S. derive from Asia, and the Asian region leads the world in forced labor. Most consumers are probably unaware that their purchase was potentially in the hands of forced labor somewhere along its path from a factory in Asia to a shelf at Walmart. What happens to the moral & ethical compass at that point?   Not much…the lowest price or best value of capitalist efficiency takes over.

“18.7 million (90 %) are exploited in the private economy, by individuals or enterprises. Of these, 4.5 million (22 per cent) are victims of forced sexual exploitation and 14.2 million (68 per cent) are victims of forced labour exploitation in economic activities, such as agriculture, construction, domestic work or manufacturing.”

http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/newsroom/news/WCMS_181961/lang–en/index.htm

Stiff competition, monopolization and unfair trade practices can result in a national/domestic economy also without globalization. You will always have the comparative advantage principle of economy being applied with regard to where the goods are manufactured and which goods get imported by our country. Free market economy, market competitiveness, good/bad of capitalistic society also applies to domestic economy. The point I am trying to raise is that I am not sure if all the evils cited in your post, Eric, is the direct causation of Globalization. I would see the impacts of globalization more in events like current economic recession, rise in the oil prices and how it impacts all the nations, availability/distribution of goods and services across the globe, information revolution, mass air transportation etc. Things like civil wars, disease, environmental issues, genocide and famine are the result of lack of political/national leadership, corporate/white collar crime/greed and other such factors.

I don’t mean to make light of forced labor, but out of a total work force of 3.2 billion that 18.7 million does not seem to be all that large. There is forced labor in the world to be sure but I suspect that very few of the products sold on the world market result from truly forced labor except in the sense that people are “forced” to work to live.

At times, I do think of work in terms of an obligation forced upon me so that I can maintain status as a surplus spending unit. Which, given the social dynamics of our country more or less mandates that I live this way. In that regard – I am performing forced labor by meeting these obligations. I wake up much earlier than I want to so that I can commute farther than I’d like and arrive at my desk that I’d prefer not to sit at for eight hours. By performing these tasks, I can afford my house, cars, and lifestyle for the remainder of my week.

The reality is, this isn’t my only option. In 2007 there was a book and subsequent movie about a man named Christopher McCandelless called, “Into the Wild”. This guy graduates from Emory University with a promising future only to get rid of every possession and all of his money. He suggested that it was at that point that he truely felt free. It’s actually a pretty interesting story.

I think, the globalization is the natural outcome and it would happen anyway given the integration of the economy, Information revolution and faster transportation/travel. Problem is not with the globalization but the problem lies with our thinking and ethics/practices and need for us to think like global citizens. Some of the preventive measures that I can think of is to build in these social costs into the financial statements of the company which gets reported to the market/pubic. Corporate profit should not just be number game around the revenues and profts generated from the operations of the business but it should also capture the social benefits/costs of environmental damages & other externalities caused by the company. There should be a way by which market/investors/shareholders of the company should start measuring the impact of the environmental externalities caused by companies/corporate and it should reflect in the share prices of the companies. To me, globalization is a boon for us as the benefits of the same can be seen in all walks of our life but how we shape it and make it work for us is entirely in our hands.

References:

http://www.articlesbase.com/ethics-articles/bps-gulf-oil-spill-where-ethics-and-legal-advice-collide-2528375.html

I think an interesting fact to consider in globalization and the impact it has on the US is that in this new age we have over a billion more people that we can connect with from these once developing countries. We have Russia, India and China that began to emerge after the 1990’s along with the internet. New and open source programs and applications are basically being built between people cooperating with each other for no money. An example is Linux. The inventor of Linux sold his invention to the world for free and it has about 15% of the operating system market (Winston, Edalbach, 2011). Linux continues to grow as the user community makes updates and improvements without payment for their work and services. It seems like this is the new direction globalization is taking with the advances in technology. Billions more people adding to this pool of knowledge and innovation will continue to transform our world and technology at a pace that we’ve never experienced before.

Winston, Edelbach. (01/2011). Society, Ethics, and Technology, Update Edition, 4th Edition. Wadsworth Publishing. Retrieved from <vbk:9781133614456#outline(4.1)>.

I didn’t mean to imply that Friedman was saying globalization was going to run its own course. I think he was updating the definition of globalization to reflect current reality (his Globalization 3.0) when he says this era is not built around countries or companies, but around individuals – and this happened because of a confluence of somewhat unrelated events. To me, one of his most useful discussions was how we’re moving from a command and control/top down model, with vertical value creation to a horizontal value creation one. I am a huge fan of Joseph Stiglitz, but when he says the world is getting less flat, I’m not sure he’s really contradicting Friedman. “Flat” and “Fair” are two different things. Stiglitz has much to contribute to the fairness discussion – particularly his point that “Things fundamental to Life and Human Survival Should Not Be Privatized or Monopolized.” Both seem to suggest that the collaboration which Globalization 3.0 supports will have positive effects, but Friedman cautions a lot of habits (and I think some well-ingrained paradigms) will have to be changed, which will take a long time.

I agree with Thomas Friedman that globalization brings about many benefits to many different countries. Globalization is something that is supposed to ‘merge’ the world (people, companies, governments of different nations), in that, countries become somewhat dependent upon each other to obtain certain products and services… one country cannot function and/or stand alone – trade being a major part of globalization. The economy seems to have broadened domestically and internationally. Globalization is moving at such a rapid pace that some argue it is making poorer countries raise their standard of living, thereby ‘leveling the playing field’ so-to-speak which could make trading seem less beneficial because everyone would have the things they already need.

What are some of the challenges experienced by governments that are associated with globalization?

  1. Making sure that the benefits of globalization is available to all countries
  2. Reducing the fear of instability more so in the developing world
  3. Global competition may lead to the reduction in value of wages
  4. Globalization being used as an excuse to not search for better solutions in the interest of all countries

http://www.carnegiecouncil.org/publications/archive/dialogue/1_11/relevance_social/588.html

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IT 237 INTRO TO WEB DESIGN II Week 6 CheckPoint Quick Check Answer

In addition to creating a box, what else can you do to call attention to the box?Boarders can be designed or images placed in the box all in an effort to decorate the box in a pleasing manor.

  •  What properties determine the size of a box?

The size of the box is controlled by the width and height properties.

What property determines whether a box will have scroll bars?

The overflow property will determine if a box has scroll bars or not. This property determines how excess text is displayed in a box.

What are the four values for that property?

 Visible: Will expand the box as much as necessary.

Hidden: Scroll bars and overflow text are not displayed.

Scroll: Size of box remains the same and scroll bars are displayed.

Auto: Size of the box remains the same scroll bars are displayed when necessary.

What property will position a box left or right?

The float property is used to position a box left or right.

If a box is floated right, where will the text wrap?

The text will wrap around the left side.

 

 

 

Reference

Bojack, H. (2008). New perspectives on blended HTML, XHTML, and CSS: Introductory. Boston: Course Technology. Retrieved: