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The two problems the British Parliament faced in North America before the Revolutionary War Answer

The two problems the British Parliament faced in North America before the Revolutionary War were as follows:

  1. No representation of North America in British parliament: From the long time, American people were demanding representation in the British parliament, but British parliament was not in position to fulfill their demand. The administration of the North America was directly run via London. It was not possible for the British parliament to understand the ground realties of the areas. Parliament was fully dependent on the feedback of their governors.
  2. Opposition of North American people against British parliament laws: After the seven year war the war, majority of the North American French colonies went into the hand of Britain. Though, Britain won this war but disputes over subsequent frontier policy and paying the war’s expenses led to colonial discontent, and ultimately to the American Revolution. War leads the England into huge debt. To overcome the problem of the debt, the government of England imposed heavy taxes on the people of America. They enacted stamp act and sugar act. Stamp act was passed in 1765. Americans find this tax to be unconstitutional because they believe that no freeman can be forced to pay the tax without his consent. English government does not have any right to impose, such type of Tax in USA.  Addition to this, this act was imposed without representation and enforcement by courts without juries which is against the social contract. This act was also against the Great Charter. According the Americans the right to private property is a “natural right”. No government can take this right from the people of any nation. The stamp act is direct interfering in the “private property “of the American people. All people across the country opposed this act including the people living in Massachusetts

In order to overcome all the problems faced by the people of North America, new government of America introduced democracy in the country. They provided right to the people to elect their representative. Addition to this, new governmnet took back all the controversial laws imposed by the British government. They removed all the trade restriction from the Americans.


Donovan and Whitten, The Pre-revolutionary Irish in Massachusetts, 1620-177, George Banta Publishing Company, 1932)

Reid, Constitutional History of the American Revolution: The Authority to Tax, Univ of Wisconsin Press,2003)

Raphael,The first America n revolution

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Chesapeake Bay The Key Estuary Closest To My Home Answer

Chesapeake Bay: The Key Estuary Closest To My Home

An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of salty water into which flow of river (or stream) can be observed. In other words, an estuary is a water body shaped by flow of freshwater (from rivers or streams) into the seawater (ocean). Out of 28 key estuaries that are mentioned in the EPA fact sheet, Chesapeake Bay is closest to my residence. It could be called as the greatest estuarine system present in United States because of its approximately 64,000 square miles watershed and around 1,500 square miles wetlands which serve as home for about 3,600 species (fish, shellfish etc.) (Affourtit, et al., 2001). Another important characteristic linked with this ecosystem is that it may filter and process residential, farming, and trade wastes and can also defend coastal regions against damage caused by storms and waves.

Major Threats

From abovementioned facts, the significance of Chesapeake Bay could be understood easily, but unfortunately this vital body is being damaged due to release of agricultural, domestic, and municipal wastes into it. In fact, as a consequence of liberation of waste substances, the quantity of Nitrogen (fig.1) as well as Phosphorus in this bay is getting increased continuously (Bianchi et al., 2000).

Fig. 1

Since, both of these nutrients are needed for maintenance of aquatic biological yield hence, extreme growth of phytoplankton and algae can be observed into this bay because of elevated input of them. The adverse effect of such growth can be identified in light of the fact that it could block the sunlight which is essential for the development of submerged aquatic grasses. Such blockage of sun-light can eventually degrade the habitat through destruction of grass-beds. Besides in deeper regions, the decay of dead algae may lead towards the deficiency of oxygen due to which, bottom-dwelling creatures like oysters and worms that perform the role of energy-source for fishes and crabs could die. All above factors can unfavorably influence the estuary and may also put a question mark against its life-supporting ability.

Coping Mechanisms

As nutrients in this bay are introduced via point (involving municipal and industrial wastewater) as well as non-point sources (for instance, animal wastes) hence, level of such nutrients must be reduced in these sources with the help of appropriate tools and techniques such as, ban on phosphorus containing detergents, nutrient-management in agricultural fields, physical, chemical, and biological treatment of waste stuffs before discharging them into bay,  up gradation of wastewater treatment plants, and control of airborne pollutants to reduce the atmospheric nitrogen accumulation etc (Guschin et al., 1997). Moreover, bay’s living reserves should also be restored through improvement of its water-quality. This goal can be achieved via the introduction of such species into the bay that may degrade the pollutants in an ecofriendly manner. In this way, the quantity of dissolved oxygen and clarity of water might also be improved which could further enhance the conditions helpful for the growth of immersed aquatic plants. These plants can further shape vital surroundings for other life-forms and thus, may contribute in revival of this bay. In addition to above, improvement in the regulatory scaffold can

also prove to be valuable for vitality of this eco-system as it may restrict the entry of pollutants from diverse artificial sources such as, industries.


Affourtit, J., Zehr, J. P., and Paerl. H. W. (2001). Distribution of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms      along    the Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina. Microb. Ecol. 41:114-123.

Bianchi, T. S., Engelhaupt, E., Westman, P., Andren, T., Rolff, C., and Elmgren. R. (2000). Cyanobacterial             blooms in the Baltic Sea: natural or human-induced? Limnol. Oceanogr.        45:716-            726.

Guschin, D. Y., Mobarry, B. K., Proudnikov, D., Stahl, D. A., Rittmann, B. E., and Mirzabekov. A. D.         (1997). Oligonucleotide microchips as genosensors for determinative and environmental studies       in microbiology. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:2397-2402.