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Drinking, sexual consent and criminal prosecution of juvenile offenders Answer

Drinking, sexual consent and criminal prosecution of juvenile offenders.

Since the prefrontal cortex is not fully developed till the mid twenties it has both very serious implications on the attitudes and psychology of an individual. In this stage the individuals generally tend to imitate what their peers are doing. They get immense satisfaction and pride from imitating them. They get social recognition and feel part of the group. However, when they indulge in activities like drinking, sexual consent and criminal activities then consequences are dire. Too much drinking leads to individuals getting caught in criminal activities. Many youngsters because of the physical attraction try to abuse each other sexually. This is very harmful for them in the later stages. Either they become addict to these activities or when they shun them the effects are very lasting on their memory. Many young individuals are caught regularly in the criminal acts like drug abuse etc. The court sends them for juvenile protection but these have again negative effect on them. It is very necessary that in this stage a proper guidance is given to individuals so that they realize the importance of limits. Proper counseling helps to eradicate these vices from the society.

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The two problems the British Parliament faced in North America before the Revolutionary War Answer

The two problems the British Parliament faced in North America before the Revolutionary War were as follows:

  1. No representation of North America in British parliament: From the long time, American people were demanding representation in the British parliament, but British parliament was not in position to fulfill their demand. The administration of the North America was directly run via London. It was not possible for the British parliament to understand the ground realties of the areas. Parliament was fully dependent on the feedback of their governors.
  2. Opposition of North American people against British parliament laws: After the seven year war the war, majority of the North American French colonies went into the hand of Britain. Though, Britain won this war but disputes over subsequent frontier policy and paying the war’s expenses led to colonial discontent, and ultimately to the American Revolution. War leads the England into huge debt. To overcome the problem of the debt, the government of England imposed heavy taxes on the people of America. They enacted stamp act and sugar act. Stamp act was passed in 1765. Americans find this tax to be unconstitutional because they believe that no freeman can be forced to pay the tax without his consent. English government does not have any right to impose, such type of Tax in USA.  Addition to this, this act was imposed without representation and enforcement by courts without juries which is against the social contract. This act was also against the Great Charter. According the Americans the right to private property is a “natural right”. No government can take this right from the people of any nation. The stamp act is direct interfering in the “private property “of the American people. All people across the country opposed this act including the people living in Massachusetts

In order to overcome all the problems faced by the people of North America, new government of America introduced democracy in the country. They provided right to the people to elect their representative. Addition to this, new governmnet took back all the controversial laws imposed by the British government. They removed all the trade restriction from the Americans.


Donovan and Whitten, The Pre-revolutionary Irish in Massachusetts, 1620-177, George Banta Publishing Company, 1932)

Reid, Constitutional History of the American Revolution: The Authority to Tax, Univ of Wisconsin Press,2003)

Raphael,The first America n revolution

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Chesapeake Bay The Key Estuary Closest To My Home Answer

Chesapeake Bay: The Key Estuary Closest To My Home

An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of salty water into which flow of river (or stream) can be observed. In other words, an estuary is a water body shaped by flow of freshwater (from rivers or streams) into the seawater (ocean). Out of 28 key estuaries that are mentioned in the EPA fact sheet, Chesapeake Bay is closest to my residence. It could be called as the greatest estuarine system present in United States because of its approximately 64,000 square miles watershed and around 1,500 square miles wetlands which serve as home for about 3,600 species (fish, shellfish etc.) (Affourtit, et al., 2001). Another important characteristic linked with this ecosystem is that it may filter and process residential, farming, and trade wastes and can also defend coastal regions against damage caused by storms and waves.

Major Threats

From abovementioned facts, the significance of Chesapeake Bay could be understood easily, but unfortunately this vital body is being damaged due to release of agricultural, domestic, and municipal wastes into it. In fact, as a consequence of liberation of waste substances, the quantity of Nitrogen (fig.1) as well as Phosphorus in this bay is getting increased continuously (Bianchi et al., 2000).

Fig. 1

Since, both of these nutrients are needed for maintenance of aquatic biological yield hence, extreme growth of phytoplankton and algae can be observed into this bay because of elevated input of them. The adverse effect of such growth can be identified in light of the fact that it could block the sunlight which is essential for the development of submerged aquatic grasses. Such blockage of sun-light can eventually degrade the habitat through destruction of grass-beds. Besides in deeper regions, the decay of dead algae may lead towards the deficiency of oxygen due to which, bottom-dwelling creatures like oysters and worms that perform the role of energy-source for fishes and crabs could die. All above factors can unfavorably influence the estuary and may also put a question mark against its life-supporting ability.

Coping Mechanisms

As nutrients in this bay are introduced via point (involving municipal and industrial wastewater) as well as non-point sources (for instance, animal wastes) hence, level of such nutrients must be reduced in these sources with the help of appropriate tools and techniques such as, ban on phosphorus containing detergents, nutrient-management in agricultural fields, physical, chemical, and biological treatment of waste stuffs before discharging them into bay,  up gradation of wastewater treatment plants, and control of airborne pollutants to reduce the atmospheric nitrogen accumulation etc (Guschin et al., 1997). Moreover, bay’s living reserves should also be restored through improvement of its water-quality. This goal can be achieved via the introduction of such species into the bay that may degrade the pollutants in an ecofriendly manner. In this way, the quantity of dissolved oxygen and clarity of water might also be improved which could further enhance the conditions helpful for the growth of immersed aquatic plants. These plants can further shape vital surroundings for other life-forms and thus, may contribute in revival of this bay. In addition to above, improvement in the regulatory scaffold can

also prove to be valuable for vitality of this eco-system as it may restrict the entry of pollutants from diverse artificial sources such as, industries.


Affourtit, J., Zehr, J. P., and Paerl. H. W. (2001). Distribution of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms      along    the Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina. Microb. Ecol. 41:114-123.

Bianchi, T. S., Engelhaupt, E., Westman, P., Andren, T., Rolff, C., and Elmgren. R. (2000). Cyanobacterial             blooms in the Baltic Sea: natural or human-induced? Limnol. Oceanogr.        45:716-            726.

Guschin, D. Y., Mobarry, B. K., Proudnikov, D., Stahl, D. A., Rittmann, B. E., and Mirzabekov. A. D.         (1997). Oligonucleotide microchips as genosensors for determinative and environmental studies       in microbiology. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:2397-2402.

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The Transatlantic World on the eve of the European Age of Discovery was a world that was urging for new discoveries and explorations Answer

The Transatlantic World on the eve of the European Age of Discovery was a world that was urging for new discoveries and explorations. Different European nations were eager to explore the unexplored regions of world with some specific purposes in mind. There were certain motives that provoked some of the major European nations in the Transatlantic World to voyage to the other side of the pacific and to usher the European Age of Discovery. It should be noted that these motives on the part of these specific European nations included the economic, religious, strategic, and political elements, and moreover, the desire of exploiting the trading network of luxury goods, slaves, spices, ivory, etc several European nations like Portugal started initiating exploration to the distant lands on the other side of the Atlantic (“Technology and Civilization”, n.d.). But the coming of the European Age of Exploration changed the entire scenario and it did reshape the world for the next 200 years. It is noteworthy that from 1450 to 1648 the Europeans sailed to the Americas, to the coast of Africa and they also explored India and Southeast Asia (Caballero, 2010), and it should be kept in mind that with the desire for glory, with the objective to spread Christianity, and with the longing for more wealth some of the European nation transformed the age of exploration into an age of tyranny, suppression, and domination. Although the age of exploration brought agony to nations like Africa and the Americas, it must be stated that without the European initiation of exploration the modern world would not have emerged. The age of exploration initiated by the Europeans paved the way for the exchange of culture, knowledge, and it initiated the exchange of the food culture of one nation with another. The majority of Africans were turned into commodities in the form of slaves and even though the Transatlantic slave trade minimized the humane qualities among the white slave traders, this trade ultimately paved the way for greater humanitarian revolutions which ultimately contributed a lot in the establishment of liberty, equality, and fraternity in nations like the United States.

(354 words)


Caballero, D. (2010). Causes of the Age of Exploration. Retrieved July 24, 2013, from

Technology and Civilization (n.d.). The Heritage of World Civilizations. Retrieved July 24, 2013, from


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A technique wherein attributes that are common to several types of an entity are grouped into their own entity, called a supertype, is called Answer

A technique wherein attributes that are common to several types of an entity are grouped into their own entity, called a supertype, is called

normalization.        generalization.        concatenation.        compound data type.        None of the above
The correct answer is  –  generalization

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Based on your reading and research, list at least five reasons why teams fail and discuss what can be done to prevent failure from happening Answer

Based on your reading and research, list at least five reasons why teams fail and discuss what can be done to prevent failure from happening.


Teams fail because of the following reasons:
1) Lack of team structure – Team structure helps the team to define their goals and approach, roles and responsibilities etc which helps them to define each one of their individual work scope or responsibility.
2) Lack of process an procedure in the project team – When there are no clear process defined for project communication, on how to run their meetings, make decisions, solve problems, or assign responsibilities, then it clearly leads to chaos in the team and the project team often finds themselves struggling for project milestone’s accomplishment and completion of tasks.
3) Lack of team building, collaboration and cooperation – When the project manager doesn’t spend enough time in team building and collaboration effort, it leads to unprofessional behaviour and conduct on the part of team members and often lead to team conflicts and issues.
4) Not investing in knowledge sharing and training, skill development – Some of the team members may feel left out if there is not much emphasis given to their training or skills building. This often leads to discontent among the team members leading to failure of the project team.
5) unable to adapt to Market Conditions and changes in the Company Policies –  At times, the project team can fail due to uncertainties or changes in market conditions and the failure of the project team to adapt to the changes may lead to too much of stress within the team and thus leading to team failure.




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MPS planners use what is referred to as time fences? What are they, and why are they used Answer

MPS planners use what is referred to as time fences? What are they, and why are they used? (Points : 20)

Ans: The inputs to MRP frequently change. This occurs in one of two ways: by recomputing the requirement and schedule periodically, often weekly, or via a “net change” calculation. Net change in an MRP system means the MRP system creates new requirements in response to trans-actions. However, many firms find they do not want to respond to minor scheduling or quantity changes even if they are aware of them. These frequent changes generate what is called system nervousness and can create havoc in purchasing and production departments if implemented. Time fences is particularly helpful when trying to reduce MRP system nervousness. Time fences allow a segment of the master schedule to be designated as “not to be rescheduled.” This segment of the master schedule is therefore not changed during the periodic regeneration of schedules.

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Effects of Categorization and social Influence on Decision Making Answer


It is well aware that individuals are social being who love to be surrounded by social groups. They like to interact with each other. In day to day life, we use cognitive process in understanding ourselves and others. It is known as social cognition process. As according to the social cognition process, an individual’s social behavior is not determined by the situation he or she is in. In fact, it is determined by the perception of the person. How he perceives it and reacts towards it. It affects our thinking, knowledge, and memory. The two main functions of cognitive process is perception and judgment. Perception is the process of selecting, organizing and interpreting or attaching meaning to the events happening in the environment through our five senses like sight, hear, taste, touch, and smell.It is the psychological process in which we perceive about other through their actions and interaction and make opinion about them. After perceiving the things, we use our knowledge, information and past experience in forming our opinion about ourselves and others who are in our surroundings. This is our cognitive process that helps us in forming the good and bad opinion and decision because sometimes, due to various reasons like cognitive dissonance, illusion of control, frequency, representatives, prior hypothesize, ego-defensiveness etc. leads the biasness and we make the wrong perception about us and others.

In general, categorization is a mental operation in which a brain classifies the objects and events on the basis of the same characteristics and traits in to one group. This categorization is based on the past knowledge and the theories. For example – personality of a person can split into two categories– introvert, and extrovert. The categorization influences the individual decision making through perception. This is based on impression formation that an individual perceives through his impression about the traits of the particular category and makes the decision making(Kihlstrom). For example – When we categories the personality into parts –introvert and extrovert, we form our opinion about the people as according to the trait of the category. Suppose we visit to a social gathering and we were aware that our one friend is introvert, we try to speak with him less because we are aware that he does not prefer to speak much because of his personality trait. Thus categorization helps us in understanding the people, the traits of the group or the category and it helps us in making our further decision. Beside it, categorization helps the doctors and psychiatrists to diagnosis their patient in better way and in prescribing the better treatment for them. Categorization is based on the theories which are done by the researchers. It is the result of their studies which comes after conducting the extensive results. But sometimes, it is also observed that there are high chances of stereotype error or biasness that influence the individual’s decision making(Kihlstrom). But it takes place when people have lack of knowledge about the group or the category and they make wrong opinion about the group. It further influence their decision making process and they make the faulty decisions.

Sometimes, the individual’s decision making is largely affected by others and it is known as social influence. It includes the direct and indirect influence both. Direct influence means when the decision of a person is largely influenced by the group decision making and indirect influence means when a person imagine how his friend or any relative will react in a particular decision and he always reacts in the same way. For example – if a group of the four people are asked to make their opinion about a particular topic. The group will follow the group decision making method to take decision. Individual member will ask to give their opinion and at last all the opinions are evaluated on the basis of its pros and cons and finally the best option is selected by the group members. But it is also found that group decision making affect the individual decision making and sometimes the individual member takes the decision under the pressure of the group irrespective of what he feels and thinks about the subject. In consumer buying habits, we can notice that people are influenced by the social interaction while making their purchasing. Suppose, a consumer wants to purchase the Television or fridge and he discuss the matter with his three or four friends and after listening their views about the brands and models of fridge, he would like to go for one which is suggested by the majority of his friends. It is the natural process that whenever we have high under social influence, our decision making approach is largely influenced by the group social group. But further the effects of social influence is largely depends on various individual and environment factors like emotional factors, educational and cultural factors (Loewenstein, 2000), past experience and the reliability of the individual on the social groups.

Thus after analyzing our cognitive process, social influence and categorization, we can say that all the social cognition plays a very important role in our life. Sometimes, we are able to judge others in the right way because we analyze the factors carefully and perceive the things accurately. But sometimes the cognitive bias misleads our decisions and creates misunderstanding about others. Like cognitive process, social influence and categorization is also helps us in making our decision. But it is always important to use our knowledge, information and past experience before making any opinion about us and others. Wrong perception can lead to the wrong judgment and wrong judgment can lead the wrong decision making. So we should ignore the importance of psychological process. In fact a good understanding helps us in perceiving the things in better way and can reduce the chances of biasness and error.



Loewenstein G, (2000). Emotions in Economic Theory and Economic Behavior. Am. Econ. Rev. 90. Pg. 426-432.

Kihlstrom J.F. An Introduction to Social Cognition. Retrieved on February 25th 2014 from



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Renfro Rentals has issued bonds that have a 10% coupon rate, payable semiannually. The bonds mature in 8 years Answer

Renfro Rentals has issued bonds that have a 10% coupon rate, payable semiannually. The bonds mature in 8 years, have a face value of $1,000, and a yield to maturity of 8.5%. What is the price of the bonds?


  Annual values Semi-annual Inputs
Years to Maturity 8 16
Coupon rate 10% 5%
Annual Payment $100 $50
Par value $1,000 $1,000
Going rate, rd 8.5% 4.25%
Value of bond = $1,084.59 $1,085.80

Since it is payable semiannually

So, Price of the bonds = $ 1085.80

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How does a company with debt, preferred stock, and common stock in its target capital structure calculate its weighted average cost of capital Answer

How does a company with debt, preferred stock, and common stock in its target capital structure calculate its weighted average cost of capital (WACC)?

WACC = wd rd(1-T) + wp rp + wcrs
rd=marginal debt capital
rp=marginal preferred stock
rs=marginal cost of common equity using retained earnings

The weighted average cost of capital (WACC) is calculated using the following formula: WACC = wdrd(1 – T) + wpsrps + wsrs, where wd is the percent of debt, rd is the interest rate on the firm’s new debt, T is the firm’s marginal tax rate, wps is the percent of preferred stock, rps is the yield investors expect on the preferred stock, ws is the percent of common equity (common stock), and rs is the rate of return investors expect from the firm’s common stock. The proportions of debt, preferred stock and common equity typically used in the formula are the target proportions to eliminate slight variability due to slight actual differences from the target proportions.
How is the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) used in a capital investment program to select investments?
The weighted average cost of capital (WACC) is a tool used to decide whether or not to invest. It represents the minimum rate of return at which a company produces value for its investors. If the companies return is more than the WACC than for each dollar the company invests it is creating value. Conversely if the company’s return is less than the WACC the company is shedding value and that investors should go in a different direction. Ultimately the WACC can serve as a solid indicator for investors but is not necessarily a commonly used tool because it requires detailed information about the company that may be difficult to acquire.
“The capital funding of a company is made up of two components: debt and equity. Lenders and equity holders each expect a certain return on the funds or capital they have provided. The cost of capital is the expected return to equity owners (or shareholders) and to debt holders, so WACC tells us the return that both stakeholders – equity owners and lenders – can expect. WACC, in other words, represents the investor’s opportunity cost of taking on the risk of putting money into a company.”

WACC is the sum of the cost of debt and the cost of equity. It is based on market values not book values and is based on management’s target capital goals. Because it is based on target, it is not explicit costs. This is the opportunity costs of raising a new dollar of capital; a marginal cost. WACC is compared to potential investments. If the projected return on the investment is less than WACC, the investment would reduce stockholder value and should be avoided.
WACC is used to find the required rate of return of the company’s investments. Because WACC is the return required by our investors and is the cost of acquiring the capital, it determines how much we must get back on our investment to make a profit on the investment. So the WACC helps determine the required rate of return on the securities they invest in.
WACC must comprise a weighted-average of the marginal costs of all sources of capital (debt, equity, etc.) since unlevered free cash flows represents cash available to all providers of capital.
WACC = E × re + D × (1 − t) × rd + P × rp
(E+D+P) (E+D+P) (E+D+P)
E = Market value of equity
D = Market value of debt
P = Market value of preferred stock
re = Cost of equity
rd = Cost of debt
rp = Cost of preferred stock
t = Marginal tax rate
The discount rate is a weighted-average of the returns expected by the different classes of capital providers (holders of different types of equity and debt), and must reflect the long-term targeted capital structure as opposed to the current capital structure. While a separate discount rate can be developed for each projection interval to reflect the changing capital structure, the discount rate is usually assumed to remain constant throughout the projection period.
While calculating the weighted-average of the returns expected by various providers of capital, market value weights for each financing element (equity, debt, etc.) must be used, because market values reflect the true economic claim of each type of financing outstanding whereas book values may not change.